Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both. Over the last century human life style and food habits have drastically changed which lead to various chronic diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one such disease which is causing serious problems to human health. Around 200 million people around the world are being diagnosed with diabetes. According to WHO statistics Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of disease- related death in world. On long standing it leads to many micro and macro vascular complications. The micro vascular complications of Diabetes includes nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Today it is estimated that about 80% of people in developing countries are still depending on traditional medicines based largely on species of plants and animals. The use of plant medicines is becoming popular due to toxic and side effects of Allopathic drugs. This lead to sudden increase in number of herbal drug industries. In Ayurveda there are many herbal medicinal plants described which are usefull in Diabetes Mellitus.
To study the effect of herbal medicinal plants in diabetes mellitus.
1) To study metabolic disorder Diabetes Mellitus in details.
2) To highlight the effect of herbal medicinal plants in Diabetes Mellitus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Diabetes mellitus occurrences in world
Diabetes mellitus is estimated to increase from 4.0 % in the year 1995 to 5.4 % by the year 2025. The number of people with diabetes mellitus in the world will increase from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million in the year 2025. According to statistics, there will be a 42% increase, from 51 million to 72 million, in the developed countries and 70% increase, from 84 to 228 million, in the developing countries.
Types of Diabetes
3 major types
- Type-1 DM ( Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
- Type 2 DM (Non- insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
- Gestational Diabetes MellituS.
Type 1 DM or Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus
In Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin is completely absent because the pancreas lacks cells pore contains defective cells. This condition occurs in genetically susceptible individuals from an autoimmune response that selectively destroys pancreatic cells. Their life spans are drastically reduced up to one third as a result of degenerative complications like kidney dysfunction, nerve impairment, and cardiovascular complications as well as blindness.
Type 2 DM or Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetis Mellitus
Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetis Mellitus is characterized by reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose levels and Insulin resistance which leads to the inefficient absorption of glucose into the cell for energy. It is present in 90% of diagnosed cases of diabetes and affects 18% of the population above 65 years of age, usually occurs in obese individuals.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Gestational Diabetes mainly develops during the time of pregnancy. It results due to the hormonal changes in pregnancy which can change the body ability to use insulin leading to carbohydrate intolerance.
List of plants used for treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
|Sr. No||Botanical Name||Common Name||Family||Reference|
|1||Benincasa Hispida||White gourd melon||Cucurbitaceae||Raj nighantu|
|4||Piper Nigrum||Black Piper||Piperaceae||Charaksutrasthan|
|5||Luffa Acutangula||Ridged gourd||Cucurbitaceae||Sushrutsutrasthan|
|6||Cirullus Colocynthis||Bitter Apple||Cucurbitaceae||Bhavprakash|
|8||Mallatus Philipinensis||Kamala Tree||Euphobiaceae||Bhavprakash|
|9||Solanum Nigrum||Black night shade||Solanaceae||Bhavprakash|
|10||Myrica Esculenta||Box myrtle||Myricaceae||Bhavprakash|
|11||Tribulus Terristris||Land Caltrops||Zygoplyllaceae||Bhavprakash|
|13||Momordia Charantia||Bitter gourd||Cucurbitaceae||Kaidevnighantu|
|16||Hemisdusmus Indicus||Indian sarsaparilla||Asclepiadaceae||DhanvantariNighantu|
|17||Rubia Cordifolia||Indian madder||Rubiaceae||DhanvantariNighantu|
|19||Ricinus Communis||Cator oil||Euphorbiaceae||Shodhalnighantu|
|21||Aconitum Ferox||Monks Hood||Ranunculaceae||RasRatnaSamuchaya|
|25||Semicarpus Anacardium||Marking Nut||Anacardiaceae||Raj nighantu|
|28||Piper Longum||Long Piper||Piperaceae||Bhavprakash|
|29||Acacia Cathechu||Cutch tree||Leguminoceae||Bhavprakash|
|30||Pongammia Pinnata||Indian beech||Leguminoceae||Kaidevnighantu|
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both. Over the last century human life style and food habits have drastically changed which lead to various chronic diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one such disease which is causing serious problems to human health. Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional system of medicine have been used in medical practices since ages. In Ayurvedic Samhita many herbal plants are found which are useful in Diabetes Mellitus. Not only in samhita but also some animal experiments are proved that some of the herbal plants are effective in Diabetes Mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which leads to various complications on long standing. Allopathic medicines are not effective in treating the disease leading to various adverse effects. Hence medicinal plants are the best alternative for the treatment of Diabetis Mellitus. The plant species have proved their efficacy in reducing blood glucose levels.
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