Introduction

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both. Over the last century human life style and food habits have drastically changed which lead to various chronic diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one such disease which is causing serious problems to human health. Around 200 million people around the world are being diagnosed with diabetes. According to WHO statistics Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of disease- related death in world.  On long standing it leads to many micro and macro vascular complications. The micro vascular complications of Diabetes includes nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Today it is estimated that about 80% of people in developing countries are still depending on traditional medicines based largely on species of plants and animals. The use of plant medicines is becoming popular due to toxic and side effects of Allopathic drugs. This lead to sudden increase in number of herbal drug industries. In Ayurveda there are many herbal medicinal plants described which are usefull in Diabetes Mellitus.

AIM-
To study the effect of herbal medicinal plants in diabetes mellitus.

OBJECTIVES-
1) To study metabolic disorder Diabetes Mellitus in details.
2) To highlight the effect of herbal medicinal plants in Diabetes Mellitus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Diabetes mellitus occurrences in world
Diabetes mellitus is estimated to increase from 4.0 % in the year 1995 to 5.4 % by the year 2025. The number of people with diabetes mellitus in the world will increase from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million in the year 2025. According to statistics, there will be a 42% increase, from 51 million to 72 million, in the developed countries and 70% increase, from 84 to 228 million, in the developing countries.

Types of Diabetes
3 major types

  1. Type-1 DM ( Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
  2. Type 2 DM (Non- insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
  3. Gestational Diabetes MellituS.

 

Type 1 DM or Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus
In Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin is completely absent because the pancreas lacks cells pore contains defective cells. This condition occurs in genetically susceptible individuals from an autoimmune response that selectively destroys pancreatic cells. Their life spans are drastically reduced up to one third as a result of degenerative complications like kidney dysfunction, nerve impairment, and cardiovascular complications as well as blindness.

Type 2 DM or Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetis Mellitus
Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetis Mellitus is characterized by reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose levels and Insulin resistance which leads to the inefficient absorption of glucose into the cell for energy. It is present in 90% of diagnosed cases of diabetes and affects 18% of the population above 65 years of age, usually occurs in obese individuals.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Gestational Diabetes mainly develops during the time of pregnancy. It results due to the hormonal changes in pregnancy which can change the body ability to use insulin leading to carbohydrate intolerance.

List of plants used for treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Sr. No Botanical Name Common Name Family Reference
1 Benincasa Hispida White gourd melon Cucurbitaceae Raj nighantu
2 Commiphora Mukul Gum-guggul Burseraceae Bhavprakash
3 Azadirachta Indica Neem Meliaceae Kaidevnighantu
4 Piper Nigrum Black Piper Piperaceae Charaksutrasthan
5 Luffa Acutangula Ridged gourd Cucurbitaceae Sushrutsutrasthan
6 Cirullus Colocynthis Bitter Apple Cucurbitaceae Bhavprakash
7 Picrorhiza Kurroa Picrorhiza Scrophulariaceae Bhavprakash
8 Mallatus Philipinensis Kamala Tree Euphobiaceae Bhavprakash
9 Solanum Nigrum Black night shade Solanaceae Bhavprakash
10 Myrica Esculenta Box myrtle Myricaceae Bhavprakash
11 Tribulus Terristris Land Caltrops Zygoplyllaceae Bhavprakash
12 Anogeissus Latifolia Axle-wood Combretaceae Bhavprakash
13 Momordia Charantia Bitter gourd Cucurbitaceae Kaidevnighantu
14 Terminalia Chebula Chebulicmyrobalan Combretaceae CharakChikitsa
15 Tinospora Cordifolia Gulanch Menispermiaceae Bhavprakash
16 Hemisdusmus Indicus Indian sarsaparilla Asclepiadaceae DhanvantariNighantu
17 Rubia Cordifolia Indian madder Rubiaceae DhanvantariNighantu
18 Centella Asiatica Bramhi Umbelliferae Bhavprakash
19 Ricinus Communis Cator oil Euphorbiaceae Shodhalnighantu
20 Cedrus Deodara Deodar Pinaceae Bhavprakash
21 Aconitum Ferox Monks Hood Ranunculaceae RasRatnaSamuchaya
22 Moringa Olifera Drumstick Moringaceae Sushrutsutrasthan
23 Cocos Nulifera Coconut Palmae Kaidevnighantu
24 Curcuma Longa Turmeric Zingeberaceae Bhavprakash
25 Semicarpus Anacardium Marking Nut Anacardiaceae Raj nighantu
26 Terminalia Arjuna Arjuna Combretaceae Bhavprakash
27 Adathoda  Vasica Adusa Acanthaceae Bhavprakash
28 Piper  Longum Long Piper Piperaceae Bhavprakash
29 Acacia Cathechu Cutch tree Leguminoceae Bhavprakash
30 Pongammia Pinnata Indian beech Leguminoceae Kaidevnighantu

DISCUSSION
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion , insulin action or both. Over the last century human life style and food habits have drastically changed which lead to various chronic diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one such disease which is causing serious problems to human health. Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional system of medicine have been used in medical practices since ages. In Ayurvedic Samhita many herbal plants are found which are useful in Diabetes Mellitus. Not only in samhita but also some animal experiments are proved that some of the herbal plants are effective in Diabetes Mellitus.

CONCLUSION
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which leads to various complications on long standing. Allopathic medicines are not effective in treating the disease leading to various adverse effects. Hence medicinal plants are the best alternative for the treatment of Diabetis Mellitus. The plant species have proved their efficacy in reducing blood glucose levels.

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